• Home
  • /Posts Tagged ' Psychology '


Has Salvation Lost Its Meaning?

FullSizeRender (14)Salvation has always been the most important concept for Christians. Their core belief, regardless of denomination, is that from the beginning human sinfulness barred us from heaven, but God in his mercy sent his Son to atone for our sins and make possible our salvation.

Most Christians still hold that belief and live by it. But a growing number have abandoned it or embraced an understanding that in times past would have qualified as heresy.… Read More


A Christian View of Self

Pensive Woman 15890414_s“That I feed the hungry, that I forgive an insult, that I love my enemy in the name of Christ—all these are undoubtedly great virtues . . . But what if I should discover that the least among them all, the poorest of all the beggars, the most impudent of all the offenders, the very enemy himself—that these are within me, and . . . that I myself am the enemy who must be loved—what then?” Psychiatrist Carl Jung raised this question, and then answered as follows:

As a rule, the Christian’s attitude is then reversed; there is no longer any question of love or long-suffering; we say to the brother within us ‘Raca,’ and condemn and rage against ourselves.

Jung found this reversal of attitude lamentable because, in his view, “the acceptance of oneself is the essence of the whole moral problem and the epitome of a whole outlook on life.” Before deciding whether Jung’s view is compatible with the Christian perspective, we should acknowledge that the Christian perspective is not as simple as many people assume.

On the one hand, Christianity teaches that humans are created “in God’s own image” (Genesis 1:26), only a little lower than the angels and “crowned with glory and honor” (Psalm 8:5). On the other hand, it teaches that humans possess a “fallen nature” that makes them prone to sin. The first teaching invites pride; the second, humility.

James and Peter tipped the balance in favor of humility—both wrote, “God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble.” (James 4:6, 1 Peter 5:5) Moreover, the story of the centurion and the parable of the Pharisee and the publican reinforce that teaching. (Matthew 8:8, and Luke 18:13) Not surprisingly, Christians have embraced that emphasis throughout the centuries.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, however, the practitioners of the then-new field of psychology, including Jung, noted a correlation between some patients’ emotional problems, notably feelings of unworthiness and guilt, and their Christian faith. Over time, many psychologists went far beyond Jung’s position. They postulated that emotional well-being depends not only on accepting ourselves, but also on loving and esteeming ourselves unconditionally, a well as on overcoming guilt.

That perspective remains dominant in our culture and is responsible, together with other factors, for many people abandoning their Christian faith. Meanwhile, many other people remain faithful but are intimidated by the supposedly scientific arguments opposing their faith. They cannot help but wonder whether the traditional Christian view of self is mistaken.

The best starting point in addressing that concern is Jesus’ statement of the two greatest commandments, loving God and loving our neighbor. His phrasing of the latter—“love your neighbor as yourself”—is significant because it specifies not only what we are to do but also the manner in which we are to do it. We are to love our neighbor as we love ourselves. The clear implications are that we already love ourselves and that self-love comes naturally, whereas loving others requires effort.

We should note that Jesus did not direct us to love others either more or less than we love ourselves, but “as we love ourselves”—that is, as much as we love ourselves. This suggests the need for a balance in our loving. If we love others less than ourselves, we are in danger of neglecting our neighborly obligations. On the other hand, if we love them more than ourselves, we are in danger of neglecting our own human needs.

Everyday experience reveals that relatively few people love others more than themselves and that the reverse is quite common—indeed, is the norm. We humans tend to be self-absorbed and not infrequently selfish. Thus, Christ’s directive to love our neighbors as we love ourselves is a more balanced and reasonable psychological guide than the self-love and self-esteem model of contemporary psychology.

But that leaves us with Jung’s point that self-acceptance is “the essence of the whole moral problem and the epitome of a whole outlook on life.” Is this idea compatible with the balanced view Christ expressed? Before answering, we need to clarify the terms self and acceptance.

The word self seems so simple as not to need definition, but in fact there are more than a dozen different definitions, including “an inner core that dominates,” “a perceiver of things,” “consciousness,” and “a center of perception.” The definition I propose in Corrupted Culture incorporates these but is simpler:

Self is synonymous with human being and person and has two dimensions— physical and metaphysical (intellect, emotion conscience, will). Together, these dimensions produce behavior (words and deeds). When behavior is habitual, as Socrates noted, it defines one’s character, and therefore can be considered a quasi-dimension of self.

The word acceptance may seem unobjectionable, but it denotes approval, and when applied to individuals, it clearly implies that they are completely acceptable just as they are. However, that is false. To be human is to be imperfect and therefore open to improvement. (Incidentally, though many psychologists and psychiatrists use the term self-acceptance, their professional activity contradicts it because it is directed toward change, in least in the matter of accepting or rejecting oneself.)

In light of the above analysis, Christians should not be comfortable with psychology’s emphases on self-love and self-acceptance. Traditional Christian thought regards self-love as something already present in us (except in aberrational cases of self-hate). Therefore, it does not need emphasizing; our emphasis should instead be on loving others. The same tradition regards self-acceptance as an invitation to emotional, intellectual, and spiritual stagnation.

What emphases on self, then, are compatible with Christianity?

First, the one that Socrates famously recommended and the Christian intellectual tradition has consistently affirmed: self-knowledge—seeking the truth about ourselves, especially our intellectual, moral, and spiritual strengths, weaknesses, and potentialities.

Secondly, self-improvement—maintaining efforts to cultivate our strengths, overcome our weaknesses, and realize our potentialities.

These emphases are as positive and life-enhancing as modern psychology’s, yet they enjoy the advantage of avoiding the twin dangers of narcissism (in the case of self-love) and stagnation (in the case of self-acceptance). Moreover, when pursued in the context of perceiving ourselves as created in the image and likeness of God and being recipients of God’s love, they provide a surer path to an emotionally healthy and meaningful life.

Copyright © 2014 by Vincent Ryan Ruggiero. All rights reserved



The Blame Game

Closeup of human hands pointing towards business manIt’s easier to point at others than at ourselves. If you doubt me, try this—extend your arm and point straight ahead. Now turn your hand and point at yourself.

The difficulty is not just anatomical; it’s also psychological, a fact increasingly evident today. Though it is most prominent among politicians—Republicans and Democrats blaming each other, and both blaming the American people—it can be found among average people as well.… Read More


In Defense Of Guilt And Shame

guiltWhile reading last week’s church bulletin, I came across an announcement for a mini-retreat titled “Letting Go of Shame and Guilt” scheduled to be held at a nearby Franciscan Center. As I read on, I learned that the program concerned “12-Step Spirituality.”

Twelve-step spirituality derives from the Alcoholics Anonymous program that began in the 1930s and continues today. The 12 steps include admitting one’s addiction, turning to God, admitting one’s offenses against others, making amends, and praying for continued guidance.… Read More


Self-Congratulation And Christmas

rockwell-greetingsOnce upon a time, not all that long ago, people sent friends and family Christmas cards with personal messages. Not just the ones already printed in the cards, but personal, handwritten messages that recalled the shared happiness of prior Christmases, expressed affection, and offered wishes for God’s blessings.

Some people still do that, and they deserve our respect for keeping the real spirit of the season alive.… Read More


Two Claims Of Infallibility

carlrogersThis essay continues the discussion begun in “Theological Confusion” and published in this journal December 13, 2012

In 1870 Vatican One proclaimed papal infallibility an official dogma of the Catholic Church. Almost a century later, humanistic psychology proclaimed, via Carl Rogers, that everyone is his or her own authority and creates his or her own truth and reality. In addition, the new psychology declared that emotions are more trustworthy than the intellect and should therefore be expressed without restraint.… Read More


Faucet Confusion Syndrome

man-looking-in-mirrorSally just got an email from her sister. She was lucky to be sitting down when she saw it. Otherwise, she might have fainted. You see, her sister caused an ugly scene at Sally’s home two years ago, stormed out, and remained silent until now.

The email could have contained an apology, something like “I apologize for behaving so badly at your home and for taking two years to find the courage to take responsibility for what I said then.” It didn’t, alas, say any such thing.… Read More


Catholic Teaching On Homosexuality

PopeFrancisIn the space of four or five decades, homosexuality has changed from perversion to disorder to respectable lifestyle. In the process discrimination against homosexuals has diminished, and that is good. In addition, the Catholic Church has received considerable criticism for refusing to change its view of homosexuality. Critics attribute this refusal to ignorance, stubbornness, contempt for science, and even bigotry. Is such criticism fair? That is the question this essay will address.… Read More


The Pinnacle Of Self-Esteem

bride_mirrorA 36-year-old North Dakota woman, Nadine Schweigert, recently married herself! According to news reports, there was a ceremony attended by her friends, and even an exchange of rings with her “inner husband.” The whole affair was not a gimmick, the bride/groom explained, but instead a celebration of herself.

There will be plenty of scoffers. They’ll say it’s one more example of the denigration of marriage and the broader decline of our culture.… Read More